Manifesto Project

  • Countries: 61 – Parties: 1196 – Linked: 1196
  • Years: 1945 – 2019
  • Reference: Budge, Ian, Hans-Dieter Klingemann, Andrea Volkens, Judith Bara, and Eric Tanenbaum 2001. Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments, 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Andrea Volkens, Judith Bara, Ian Budge, and Michael D. McDonald. 2006. Mapping Policy Preferences II: Estimates for Parties, Electors and Governments in Central and Eastern Europe, European Union and OECD 1990-2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Volkens, Andrea, Judith Bara, Ian Budge, and Michael D. McDonald. 2013. Mapping Policy Preferences from Texts III: Statistical Solutions for Manifesto Analysts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. —
  • Description: election programs for democratic elections (since 1945)
  • Dataset type: core member (core)

ParlGov

  • Countries: 37 – Parties: 1398 – Linked: 1398
  • Years: 1900 – 2020
  • Reference: Döring, Holger and Philip Manow 2018: "Parliaments and governments database (ParlGov): Information on parties, elections and cabinets in modern democracies. Development version." —
  • Description: parties, election results, cabinets (EU and OECD, since 1900)
  • Dataset type: core member (core)

Wikipedia

  • Countries: 213 – Parties: 4048 – Linked: 4048
  • Years: 1900 – 2020
  • Reference: Wikipedia · en.wikipedia.org —
  • Description: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Comment: Wikipedia data from Infobox and Wikidata for Party Facts core parties. Automatically linked during import based on "partyfacts_id".
  • Dataset type: information (info)

CHES

  • Countries: 39 – Parties: 540 – Linked: 540
  • Years: 1999 – 2017
  • Reference: Polk, Jonathan, Jan Rovny, Ryan Bakker, Erica Edwards, Liesbet Hooghe, Seth Jolly, Jelle Koedam, Filip Kostelka, Gary Marks, Gijs Schumacher, Marco Steenbergen, Milada Vachudova and Marko Zilovic. 2017. "Explaining the salience of anti-elitism and reducing political corruption for political parties in Europe with the 2014 Chapel Hill Expert Survey data," Research & Politics (January-March): 1-9. Ryan Bakker, Catherine de Vries, Erica Edwards, Liesbet Hooghe, Seth Jolly, Gary Marks, Jonathan Polk, Jan Rovny, Marco Steenbergen, and Milada Vachudova. 2015. "Measuring party positions in Europe: The Chapel Hill expert survey trend file, 1999-2010." Party Politics 21.1: 143-152. —
  • Description: expert surveys on European integration, ideology and policies
  • Dataset type: partner project (partner)

CLEA

  • Countries: 156 – Parties: 2266 – Linked: 2266
  • Years: 1800 – 2014
  • Reference: Kollman, Ken, Allen Hicken, Daniele Caramani, David Backer, and David Lublin. 2018. “Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA). 2018 Version (20180507). Produced and Distributed by Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Political Studies, University of Michigan.” —
  • Description: election results at the constituency level
  • Dataset type: partner project (partner)

EJPR PDY

  • Countries: 37 – Parties: 658 – Linked: 658
  • Years: 1991 – 2015
  • Reference: European Journal of Political Research Political Data Yearbook (EJPR PDY) —
  • Description: election, referenda, governments, institutional reforms (since 1990s)
  • Dataset type: partner project (partner)

CHISOLS

  • Countries: 152 – Parties: 1129 – Linked: 1129
  • Years: 1919 – 2008
  • Reference: Mattes, Michaela, Brett Ashley Leeds, and Naoko Matsumura. 2016. “Measuring Change in Source of Leader Support: The CHISOLS Dataset.” Journal of Peace Research 53(2): 259–67. —
  • Description: change in source of leader support
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

DPI

  • Countries: 171 – Parties: 1693 – Linked: 1693
  • Years: 1975 – 2015
  • Reference: Cruz, Cesi, Philip Keefer, and Carlos Scartascini. 2016. “The Database of Political Institutions 2015 (DPI2015).” https://publications.iadb.org/handle/11319/7408. —
  • Description: database of political institutions
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

ESS prtc*

  • Countries: 37 – Parties: 732 – Linked: 732
  • Years: 2002 – 2018
  • Reference: + ESS Round 1: European Social Survey Round 1 Data (2002). Data file edition 6.6. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS1-2002. + ESS Round 2: European Social Survey Round 2 Data (2004). Data file edition 3.6. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS2-2004. + ESS Round 3: European Social Survey Round 3 Data (2006). Data file edition 3.7. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS3-2006. + ESS Round 4: European Social Survey Round 4 Data (2008). Data file edition 4.5. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS4-2008. + ESS Round 5: European Social Survey Round 5 Data (2010). Data file edition 3.4. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS5-2010. + ESS Round 6: European Social Survey Round 6 Data (2012). Data file edition 2.4. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS6-2012. + ESS Round 7: European Social Survey Round 7 Data (2014). Data file edition 2.2. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS7-2014. + ESS Round 8: European Social Survey Round 8 Data (2016). Data file edition 2.1. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS8-2016. + ESS Round 9: European Social Survey Round 9 Data (2018). Data file edition 1.2. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS9-2018. —
  • Description: ESS 1-9 · prtc* ("party closer to")
  • Comment: European Social Survey (ESS) Rounds 1-9 — prtc* variables — "Which party feel closer to, [...]"
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

ESS prtv*

  • Countries: 37 – Parties: 756 – Linked: 756
  • Years: 2002 – 2018
  • Reference: + ESS Round 1: European Social Survey Round 1 Data (2002). Data file edition 6.6. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS1-2002. + ESS Round 2: European Social Survey Round 2 Data (2004). Data file edition 3.6. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS2-2004. + ESS Round 3: European Social Survey Round 3 Data (2006). Data file edition 3.7. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS3-2006. + ESS Round 4: European Social Survey Round 4 Data (2008). Data file edition 4.5. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS4-2008. + ESS Round 5: European Social Survey Round 5 Data (2010). Data file edition 3.4. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS5-2010. + ESS Round 6: European Social Survey Round 6 Data (2012). Data file edition 2.4. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS6-2012. + ESS Round 7: European Social Survey Round 7 Data (2014). Data file edition 2.2. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS7-2014. + ESS Round 8: European Social Survey Round 8 Data (2016). Data file edition 2.1. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS8-2016. + ESS Round 9: European Social Survey Round 9 Data (2018). Data file edition 1.2. NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data for ESS ERIC. doi:10.21338/NSD-ESS9-2018. —
  • Description: ESS 1-9 · prtv* ("party voted for")
  • Comment: European Social Survey (ESS) Rounds 1-9 — prtv* variables — "Party voted for in last national election, [...]"
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

Huber / Inglehart (1995)

  • Countries: 42 – Parties: 302 – Linked: 302
  • Years: 1990 – 1995
  • Reference: Huber, John D., and Ronald Inglehart. 1995. “Expert Interpretations of Party Space and Party Locations in 42 Societies.” Party Politics 1(1):73–111. —
  • Description: expert survey on parties' left/right positions
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

Kitschelt (2013)

  • Countries: 88 – Parties: 507 – Linked: 507
  • Years: 2008 – 2009
  • Reference: Kitschelt, Herbert. 2013. “Dataset of the Democratic Accountability and Linkages Project (DALP).” Duke University. http://sites.duke.edu/democracylinkage. —
  • Description: expert survey on leadership accountability
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

PolCon

  • Countries: 180 – Parties: 1672 – Linked: 1672
  • Years: 1800 – 2012
  • Reference: Henisz, W. J. 2000. “The Institutional Environment for Economic Growth.” Economics & Politics 12(1): 1–31. —
  • Description: political constraint index
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

PPMD (2006)

  • Countries: 47 – Parties: 370 – Linked: 370
  • Years: 2003 – 2004
  • Reference: Benoit, Kenneth and Michael Laver. 2006. Party Policy in Modern Democracies. London: Routledge. —
  • Description: expert survey on party policy in modern democracies
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

World Values Survey

  • Countries: 84 – Parties: 573 – Linked: 573
  • Years: 1990 – 2015
  • Reference: World Values Survey 1981-2014 Longitudinal Aggregate v.20150418. World Values Survey Association (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). Aggregate File Producer: JDSystems, Madrid SPAIN. —
  • Description: public opinion surveys on changing values
  • Comment: vote intention question used to calculate party size information
  • Dataset type: main dataset (main)

African Elections DB

  • Countries: 49 – Parties: 586 – Linked: 586
  • Years: 1910 – 2012
  • Reference: Nunley, A. (2012). African Elections Database. [online] Africanelections.tripod.com. Available at: http://africanelections.tripod.com/index.html [Accessed 24 Dec. 2018]. —
  • Description: election results in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Comment: A database of election results in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Afrobarometer (2016)

  • Countries: 35 – Parties: 116 – Linked: 116
  • Years: 2015 – 2016
  • Reference: Afrobarometer, Merged Round 6 data (36 countries) (2016), available at http://www.afrobarometer.org. —
  • Description: public opinion surveys in Africa
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

CCS

  • Countries: 27 – Parties: 269 – Linked: 269
  • Years: 2005 – 2017
  • Reference: CCS 2016. Comparative Candidates Survey Module I - 2005-2013 [Dataset - cumulative file]. Distributed by FORS, Lausanne, 2016. CCS 2018. Comparative Candidates Survey Wave II - 2013-2018 [Dataset - cumulative file]. Distributed by FORS, Lausanne, 2018. https://doi.org/10.23662/FORS-DS-886-2 —
  • Description: Comparative Candidates Survey
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Coppedge (1997)

  • Countries: 11 – Parties: 253 – Linked: 253
  • Years: 1912 – 1995
  • Reference: Coppedge, Michael. 1997. “A Classification of Latin American Political Parties.” . Kellogg Institute for International Studies -- Working Paper #244. https://kellogg.nd.edu/documents/1539. —
  • Description: classification of Latin American parties
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

CSES-IMD

  • Countries: 55 – Parties: 692 – Linked: 692
  • Years: 1996 – 2016
  • Reference: The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (www.cses.org). CSES INTEGRATED MODULE DATASET (IMD) [dataset and documentation]. December 4, 2018 version. doi:10.7804/cses.imd.2018-12-04 —
  • Description: Comparative Study of Electoral Systems - IMD
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

EPAC (2018)

  • Countries: 22 – Parties: 293 – Linked: 293
  • Years: 2011 – 2016
  • Reference: Szöcsik, Edina, and Christina Zuber. 2015. “EPAC: A New Dataset on Ethnonationalism in Party Competition in 22 European Democracies.” Party Politics 21(1): 153–60. Zuber, Christina Isabel, and Edina Szöcsik. 2018. “The Second Edition of the EPAC Expert Survey on Ethnonationalism in Party Competition – Testing for Validity and Reliability.” Regional & Federal Studies. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/13597566.2018.1512975. —
  • Description: expert survey on ethno-nationalism in party competition
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

EP roll call votes

  • Countries: 15 – Parties: 169 – Linked: 169
  • Years: 1979 – 2009
  • Reference: Hix, Simon, Abdul G. Noury, and Gérard Roland. 2007. Democratic Politics in the European Parliament. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. —
  • Description: roll call votes European Parliament (1979–2009)
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

ERDDA (2013)

  • Countries: 29 – Parties: 464 – Linked: 464
  • Years: 1945 – 2013
  • Reference: Andersson, Staffan, Torbjörn Bergman, and Svante Ersson. 2013. “The European Representative Democracy Data Archive, Release 2. Main Sponsor: Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (In2007-0149:1-E) -- www.erdda.se” —
  • Description: cabinets, parliaments and parties in post-war Europe
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

euandi (GPS)

  • Countries: 28 – Parties: 243 – Linked: 243
  • Years: 2014 – 2014
  • Reference: Trechsel, Alexander H.; Garzia, Diego; De Sio, Lorenzo (2015): euandi (General Population Survey) - User Profiles in the 2014 European Elections. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA5970 Data file Version 2.0.0, doi:10.4232/1.12246 —
  • Description: party profiles in 2014 EP election
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Global Elections DB

  • Countries: 55 – Parties: 664 – Linked: 664
  • Years: 1944 – 2009
  • Reference: Brancati, Dawn. 2018. Global Elections Database. New York: Global Elections Database, Date Accessed 11/03/2018. Website: http://www.globalelectionsdatabase.com. —
  • Description: national lower house elections
  • Comment: We combined the tables from the website.
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

IPOD

  • Countries: 21 – Parties: 287 – Linked: 287
  • Years: 1944 – 2015
  • Reference: Giger, Nathalie; Schumacher, Gijs, 2015, "Integrated Party Organization Dataset (IPOD)", http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/PE8TWP, Harvard Dataverse, version 1. —
  • Description: integrated party organization data
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Janda (1980)

  • Countries: 53 – Parties: 158 – Linked: 158
  • Years: 1950 – 1962
  • Reference: Janda, Kenneth. 1980. Political Parties: A Cross-National Survey. New York, NY: The Free Press. —
  • Description: parties in the world – 1950 to 1962
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Jennings / Wlezien

  • Countries: 31 – Parties: 201 – Linked: 201
  • Years: 2000 – 2017
  • Reference: Jennings, Will, and Christopher Wlezien. 2018. “Election Polling Errors across Time and Space.” Nature Human Behaviour 2(4): 276–83. —
  • Description: election polling information (since 1940s)
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

KUREP (2012)

  • Countries: 27 – Parties: 210 – Linked: 210
  • Years: 2007 – 2008
  • Reference: Rohrschneider, Robert, and Stephen Whitefield. 2012. The Strain of Representation: How Parties Represent Diverse Voters in Western and Eastern Europe. Oxford University Press. -----, ‘An Expert Survey of 208 Parties in Europe’. —
  • Description: expert surveys in West and Central-Eastern Europe
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

LAEDA

  • Countries: 24 – Parties: 222 – Linked: 222
  • Years: 1934 – 2010
  • Reference: Mustillo, Tom. 2012. “Latin American and Caribbean, Lower House Election Results, 1934-2010.” https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/17851 (November 1, 2018). —
  • Description: election results Latin America and Caribbean
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Latinobarometer

  • Countries: 19 – Parties: 281 – Linked: 281
  • Years: 1995 – 2018
  • Reference: CL (Corporación Latinobarómetro) (2018), INFORME LATINOBARÓMETRO 2017. http://www.latinobarometro.org/latNewsShow.jsp (31. January 2019). —
  • Description: annual public opinion surveys in Latin America
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Laver / Hunt

  • Countries: 24 – Parties: 162 – Linked: 162
  • Years: 1992 – 1992
  • Reference: Laver, Michael, and W. Ben Hunt. 1992. Policy and Party Competition. New York: Routledge. —
  • Description: expert survey on policy and party competition
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Mackie / Rose (1991)

  • Countries: 25 – Parties: 746 – Linked: 746
  • Years: 1800 – 1991
  • Reference: Mackie, Thomas, and Richard Rose. 1991. The International Almanac of Electoral History. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. —
  • Description: election results in Western nations
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

MAPP

  • Countries: 31 – Parties: 428 – Linked: 428
  • Years: 1945 – 2014
  • Reference: van Haute, Emilie, & Paulis, Emilien. MAPP Dataset [Data set]. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.61234 —
  • Description: members and activists of political parties
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Morgan (1976)

  • Countries: 12 – Parties: 139 – Linked: 139
  • Years: 1919 – 1978
  • Reference: Morgan, Michael-John. 1976. “The Modelling of Governmental Coalition Formation: A Policy-Based Approach with Interval Measurement.” University of Michigan. —
  • Description: expert survey to study coalition formation
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Mudde (2007)

  • Countries: 34 – Parties: 111 – Linked: 111
  • Years: 1961 – 2007
  • Reference: Mudde, C. (2007). Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511492037 —
  • Description: populist radical right parties in Europe
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

ParlSpeech

  • Countries: 11 – Parties: 157 – Linked: 157
  • Years: 1987 – 2019
  • Reference: Rauh, Christian and Schwalbach, Jan. 2020. "The ParlSpeech V2 data set: Full-text corpora of 6.3 million parliamentary speeches in the key legislative chambers of nine representative democracies", https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/L4OAKN, Harvard Dataverse, V1 —
  • Description: annotated plenary speeches
  • Comment: The ParlSpeech V2 data set: Full-text corpora of 6.3 million parliamentary speeches in the key legislative chambers of nine representative democracies
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Parties-PostYug

  • Countries: 7 – Parties: 148 – Linked: 148
  • Years: 1990 – 2016
  • Reference: Todorić, Nikola;Döring, Holger;Zuber, Christina, 2018, "Parties-PostYug", https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/WWHXDY, Harvard Dataverse, V1, UNF:6:dkfn4zkZeFCdIU/oIZ9GOA== [fileUNF] —
  • Description: parties in countries succeeding Yugoslavia
  • Comment: Parties-PostYug: Data on parties, elections and governments in post-Yugoslav democracies
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

PIP

  • Countries: 36 – Parties: 571 – Linked: 571
  • Years: 1944 – 2016
  • Reference: Jahn, Detlef, Nils Düpont, Sven Kosanke, and Christoph Oberst together with Thomas Behm and Martin Rachuj. 2018. “PIP – Parties, Institutions & Preferences: PIP Collection [Version 2018-02].” Chair of Comparative Politics, University of Greifswald. —
  • Description: parties, institutions, preferences
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

POPPA

  • Countries: 28 – Parties: 252 – Linked: 252
  • Years: 2018 – 2018
  • Reference: Meijers, Maurits; Zaslove, Andrej, 2020, "Populism and Political Parties Expert Survey 2018 (POPPA)", https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/8NEL7B, Harvard Dataverse, V1 —
  • Description: populism and parties expert survey
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

PPDB (2017)

  • Countries: 19 – Parties: 122 – Linked: 122
  • Years: 2002 – 2014
  • Reference: Thomas Poguntke, Susan Scarrow, and Paul Webb. 2017. “Political Party Database Round 1a.” http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/0NM7KZ. Poguntke, Thomas et al. 2016. “Party Rules, Party Resources and the Politics of Parliamentary Democracies: How Parties Organize in the 21st Century.” Party Politics 22(6): 661–78. —
  • Description: how parties organize
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

PPLA (2009)

  • Countries: 18 – Parties: 163 – Linked: 163
  • Years: 2006 – 2007
  • Reference: Wiesehomeier, Nina, and Kenneth Benoit. 2009. “Presidents, Parties and Policy Competition.” The Journal of Politics 71(4):1435–47. —
  • Description: expert survey parties and presidents in Latin America
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Ray (1999)

  • Countries: 17 – Parties: 191 – Linked: 191
  • Years: 1984 – 1996
  • Reference: Ray, Leonard. 1999. “Measuring Party Orientations towards European Integration: Results from an Expert Survey.” European Journal of Political Research 36(2): 283–306. —
  • Description: expert survey on European Integration
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

TAP

  • Countries: 32 – Parties: 172 – Linked: 172
  • Years: 1980 – 2020
  • Reference: Timbro & The Foundation for Free Enterprise —
  • Description: Timbro Authoritarian Populism Index
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

The PopuList

  • Countries: 31 – Parties: 213 – Linked: 213
  • Years: 1989 – 2019
  • Reference: Rooduijn, M., Van Kessel, S., Froio, C., Pirro, A., De Lange, S., Halikiopoulou, D., Lewis, P., Mudde, C. & Taggart, P. (2019). The PopuList: An Overview of Populist, Far Right, Far Left and Eurosceptic Parties in Europe. http://www.popu-list.org. —
  • Description: populist parties in Europe (since 1989)
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

Voteview

  • Countries: 1 – Parties: 39 – Linked: 39
  • Years: 1789 – 2020
  • Reference: Jeffrey B. Lewis et al. 2020. “Voteview: Congressional Roll-Call Votes Database.” —
  • Description: roll call votes United States since 1789
  • Dataset type: all dataset (all)

EES 2014

  • Countries: 28 – Parties: 200 – Linked: 200
  • Years: 2014 – 2014
  • Reference: Schmitt, Hermann, Sebastian A. Popa, Sara B. Hobolt, and Eftichia Teperoglou. 2014. “European Parliament Election Study 2014, Voter Study. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA5160 Data File Version 2.0.0, doi:10.4232/1. 12300.” Schmitt, Hermann, Sara Hobolt, and Sebastian Adrian Popa. 2015. “Does Personalization Increase Turnout? Spitzenkandidaten in the 2014 European Parliament Elections.” European Union Politics 16(3): 347–68. —
  • Description: European Parliament Election Study 2014
  • Dataset type: article dataset (article)

Thomas (1975)

  • Countries: 12 – Parties: 56 – Linked: 56
  • Years: 1870 – 1960
  • Reference: Thomas, John Clayton. 1975. “The Decline of Ideology in Western Political Parties: A Study of Changing Policy Orientations.” London; Beverly Hills, CA. Sage Professional Papers in Contemporary Political Sociology. —
  • Description: policy orientations of Western parties
  • Dataset type: article dataset (article)